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Design a Mathematics Curicullum


We often refer to syllabus as an official document which describes what to teach in schools. We may refer to curriculum as the package of a syllabus together with the implementation tools such as textbooks and resource materials for teacher training. Then we can say that though the mathematics syllabus in Indonesia did not change, its curriculum has changed under the movement of PMRI. Naturally, the next topic of interest is the design of a mathematics curriculum encompassing PMRI. Sebenarnya dulu sebelum perang dunia kedua, silabus bukanlah apa, hanya sebuah koleksi latihan, but now the syllabus is standards, has the size of a book, spelling out in detail what to teach, and sometimes also how to teach.


In this article, the author put in writing some of the experience gained through the involvement in designing curricula since 1971. This article decided factors in designing a curriculum, some practices, and the latest trends. For convenience, we keep the discussion general, and do not refer to a specific syllabus. And refer to the syllabus of 7-10th grade.


There are two types of syllabuses, descriptive and prescriptive. Descriptive It leaves a lot of room for teachers to interpret the syllabus.So, the techer can be manage and also design how to present the syllabus. And prescriptive  syllabus is sometimes to the extent that items to be excluded would be clearly stated in the syllabus.


Actually, lets descriptive and prescriptive syllabuses are moving closer together.


A reform can move only as fast as teachers can move. Hence training of teachers becomes an important component in the implementation of a curriculum. There has been research showing that a better way could be through peer learning within the school environment. However workshop remains a common practice. The production of textbooks became another important component in the successful implementation of a syllabus. In some countries, textbooks are produced officially or semi-officially. Some leave it to the private enterprises. The official syllabus may be the intended syllabus. Textbook should be the interpreted syllabus. Often this is not the case if not done officially with or without official sanction.



A reform can move only as fast as teachers can move. This is a known fact. Hence training of teachers becomes an important component in the implementation of a curriculum. During the Maths Reforms, it was a common practice to conduct workshops for in-service teachers. That seems to be the only way to train teachers to acquire new content knowledge within a short period of time. Somehow this became a standard practice till now without ever questioning whether this is a good way to train teachers. There has been research showing that a better way could be through peer learning within the school environment. However workshop remains a common practice.

The lesson we learn from the past is that we must prepare the teachers before any changes in the curriculum. We cannot afford to rush.



Society has changed. So has the student profile. For example, the older people listen to radio, whereas the younger people watch television. The older people write by hand, whereas the younger people work on the computer. Students are at the receiving end of the teaching process. The environment definitely affects their learning.

Often student profile is not a top priority in designing a curriculum. Knowing the learning habit of our students is as important as selecting the topics to be included in a syllabus. In one sentence, we may wish to pay greater attention to the student profile while designing a curriculum.



The issue of Mathematics for All was discussed extensively at the international conferences in the 90s. The essence was that all students should study mathematics and up to a certain level. This created immerse difficulty for some students. The questions were and still are how to help them and whether they really need it. This is a general problem in education and not mathematics alone. Most countries practise some kind of streaming and some do it more rigorously than others. One consequence of such severe streaming is that after 25 years we may produce a group of students who would never make it anywhere within the existing educational system. Consequently, special schools had to be set up to cater to this group of students.

Assume that every student needs to learn some mathematics. In connection with the design of a curriculum, a solution could be differentiated syllabuses or differentiated curricula.



Initially, assessment was meant to be assessment of learning. Then people started advocating assessment for learning. In the past two years, people invented another new term assessment as learning. Roughly speaking, assessment of learning means “we assess what is learned”. Assessment for learning means “we learn from what is assessed”. Assessment as learning means “assessing is a way of learning”. It is too early to say whether the third version of assessment will work as well as the first two. Teaching must always come before learning.



The latest change in the classroom is to teach in context and to emphasize on the pocesses.

Geometry with proofs and mechanics were the two essential subjects in school mathematics before the Maths Reforms. Both involve processes more so than algebra. Now algebra dominates the school mathematics. We lost two subjects rich in content and rich in exam questions. In other words, we lost two rich training grounds to teach thinking process and to teach applications. So far, there is no replacement.

The success or otherwise of the modelling project depends on how the participants play it. The hope is that learning experience and modelling might help bring back some of the things that we have lost in geometry and mechanics. We can only wait and see.



A curriculum is a good curriculum only when we have implemented it

successfully. To be successful, it has to be considered in connection with teachers,

students, and many other determining factors. A short summary is given below.

  • Mathematics is the core and not how to teach it.
  • A reform can move only as fast as teachers can move.
  • We train our students for the work place different from our own.
  • We need to cater to students of different abilities.
  • We should explore the positive aspect of the examination system.
  • Make explicit in a syllabus teaching in context and emphasis on processes.

It is common to take a generation or 25 years to find out whether we have

made a correct decision on a major educational policy. Further, it would take another 25 years to correct it if the decision was found to be wrong. We can give a few examples. Perhaps designing a curriculum is not so serious. The fact that it takes time to find out right or wrong is the same.


When we review our syllabus, we look around among other countries and compare with them. Perhaps we should also look back in time. Find out what we have done right and what we have done wrong. In order to do that, we need good documentation of the past events. In other words, we must have institutional memory. Activity-based teaching of PMRI may have made in-roads into the classroom in Indonesia. It will be the design of a locally-produced curriculum that will lead the movement of PMRI to become a main stream in the reform of mathematics teaching, in particular, and education, in general, in Indonesia.



Written by : Lee Ping Yee



Process Standards for Primary and Secondary Education Unit


           This is English version..

           In accordance with the mandate of the Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 on National Education Standards one of the standards to be developed is a standard process. Standard is the process of national education standards relating to the implementation of learning in education units to achieve competency. Standard contains the minimum criteria process of learning processes in elementary and secondary education unit in the entire territory of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia. This process standard applies to primary and secondary education in formal, either on the package system and the semester credit system. The standard covers the process of planning the learning process, the implementation of the learning process, assessment of learning outcomes, and supervision of the learning process for the implementation of the learning process effective and efficient.


Planning the learning process includes the syllabus and learning implementation plan (RPP), which contains the identity of subjects, standards of competence (SK), basic competence (KD), indicators of achievement of competencies, learning objectives, teaching materials, time allocation, teaching methods, learning activities, assessment result of learning, and learning resources.

a. Syllabus

Syllabus as a reference for the development of RPP contains the identity of subjects or themes lesson, SK, KD, learning materials, learning activities, indicators of achievement of competencies, assessment, allocation of time, and learning resources. Syllabus developed by the unit

education based on Content Standards (SI) and Competency Standards Graduates (SKL), as well as guidance for preparing Education Unit Level Curriculum (SBC). In practice,

syllabus development can be done by teachers independently or in groups in a school / madrasa or a few schools, the Teacher (MGMP) or Teacher Activity Centre (PKG), and the Department of Education. Development of syllabus prepared under the supervision of district that is responsible in the field of education for elementary and junior high, and the provincial departments responsible for education for high school and vocational school, as well as departments in charge of governmental affairs in the field of religion for the MI, MTs, MA , and MAK.


A. Learning Implementation Plan (RPP)


RPP is derived from the syllabus to guide learners' learning activities in an effort to reach KD. Every teacher in the educational unit is obliged to compile a complete and systematic lesson plans for learning take place in an interactive, inspiring, exciting, challenging, motivating learners to actively participate and provide enough space for innovation, creativity, and independence according to their talents, interests, and physical and psychological development of learners. Draft prepared for every KD which can be carried out in one session or more. Teachers design lesson plans for each fragment, adjusted for scheduling meetings in the educational unit.


RPP components are:

1.Identitas subjects that include: educational unit, class, semester, course / program expertise, subject or theme of the lesson, the number of meetings.

2. Competence standard which is the minimum qualification ability learners that describe the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes, and skills that are expected to be achieved in each class and / or semester on a subject.

3. Basic competence is the ability to master a number of learners in a particular subject as a reference indicator of competence in the preparation of a lesson.

4. Indicators of achievement of competencies are behaviors that can be measured and / or observed to demonstrate achievement of certain basic competency assessment is the reference subjects. Indicators of achievement of competencies defined by using the verb operation can be observed and measured, which include knowledge, attitudes, and skills.

5. Learning goals describe the process and the expected learning outcomes achieved by learners in accordance with basic competence.

6. Teaching materials contain facts, concepts, principles, and the relevant procedures, and written in the form of beads in accordance with the formulation of indicators of competency achievement.

7. The allocation of time, is determined in accordance with the purposes for the attainment of KD and the burden of learning.

8. This learning method used by teachers to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that learners achieve basic competency or set of indicators that have been determined. Selection of learning methods adapted to the situation and condition of the learner, and the characteristics of each indicator and competencies to be achieved in each subject. Thematic learning approach is used to grade students 1sampai grade 3 primary.

9. Learning activities

a. Preliminary

Introduction is the initial activity in a meeting intended to raise learning motivation and focus the attention of learners to participate actively in the learning process.

b. Core

Core activities is a learning process to reach KD. Conducted in an interactive learning activities, inspiring, exciting, challenging, motivating learners to actively participate and provide enough space for innovation, creativity, and independence according to their talents, interests, and physical and psychological development of learners. This activity is carried out systematically and systemically through the process of exploration, elaboration, and confirmation.

c. Cover

Closing the activities undertaken to terminate the learning activities that can be done in the form of summary or conclusions, assessment and reflection, feedback, and follow-up.


10. Assessment of learning outcomes. Procedures and assessment instruments and processes tailored to the learning outcomes and indicators of achievement of competence refers to the Standards Assessment.

11. Learning resources which are determined based on the standards of competence and basic competence, and teaching materials, learning activities, and indicators of achievement of competencies.


B. Preparation of Draft Principles


1. Taking into account individual differences of learners

In the preparation of RPP we need to consider such things as gender, initial ability, intellectual level, interest, motivation, talent, potential, social skills, emotional, learning styles, special needs, the speed of learning, cultural background, norms, values, and / or environment of the learners.

2. Encourage active participation of learners

The learning process is designed with a focus on learners to encourage

motivation, interest, creativity, initiative, inspiration, independence, and the spirit of learning.

3. Developing a culture of reading and writing

The learning process is designed to develop a penchant for reading a variety of reading comprehension, and expression in various forms of writing.

4. Provide feedback and follow-up

RPP program design includes the provision of positive feedback, reinforcement, enrichment, and remediation.

5. The linkage and integration

Draft prepared by taking into account linkage and integration between SK, KD, materials

learning, learning activities, indicators of achievement of competencies, assessment, and learning resources in a whole learning experience. RPP are prepared to accommodate thematic learning, integration across subjects, across aspects of learning, and cultural diversity.

6. Applying information and communication technology

Draft prepared by considering the application of information and communication technology

integrated, systematic, and effective in accordance with the circumstances.





A. Requirements for the Implementation of Learning Process

1. Study groups

The maximum number of students studying each group are:

a. SD / MI: 28 learners

b. SMP / MT: 32 learners

c. SMA / MA: 32 learners

d. SMK / MAK: 32 learners

2. Minimum workload of teachers

a. Workload of teachers includes the following main activities are planning lessons, conducting lessons, assess learning outcomes, guide and train students, as well as carry out additional duties;

b. Workload of teachers referred to in letter a above is at least 24 (twenty four) hours of face to face in 1 (one) week.

3. Of textbooks

a. Textbooks that will be used by the school / madrasah teachers selected through a meeting with committee consideration of the school / madrasah of lesson text books set by the Minister;

b. The ratio of textbooks to students is 1: 1 per subject;

c. In addition to textbooks, teachers use the teachers guide, enrichment books, reference books and other learning resources;

d. Teachers familiarize students use books and other learning resources that exist in library school / madrasah.

4. Classroom management

a. Teachers arrange seating according to the characteristics of learners and subjects, and learning activities to be performed;

b. Volume and tone of voice teachers in the learning process should be heard well by the learners;

c. Mannered teacher and said words can be understood by students;

d. Teachers adapt learning materials with speed and learning ability learners;

e. Teachers create order, discipline, convenience, safety, and compliance in implementing the learning process;

f. Teachers provide reinforcement and feedback on responses and learning outcomes of students during the learning process took place;

g. Teachers appreciate students regardless of religious background, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status;

h. Teachers value the opinions of learners;

i. Teachers wear a polite, clean, and tidy;

j. At the beginning of each semester, teachers delivering the syllabus subjects diampunya; and

k. Teachers begin and end the learning process in accordance with the scheduled time.


B. Implementation of Learning

Implementation of the learning is the implementation of the RPP. Implementation of the learning

includes introductory activities, core activities and closing activities.

1. Activities Introduction

In the preliminary activities, the teacher:

a. prepare students psychologically and physically to participate in the learning process;

b. ask questions that relate previous knowledge with

material that will be studied;

c. explain the purpose of learning or basic competencies to be achieved;

d. convey the scope of the material and the explanations fit the description of the syllabus.

2. Core Activities

Implementation of core activities is a learning process to reach KD conducted in an interactive, inspiring, exciting, challenging, motivating learners to actively participate and provide enough space for innovation, creativity, and independence according to their talents, interests and physical and psychological development of participants learners. Core activities use methods adapted to the characteristics of learners and subjects, which may include the exploration, elaboration, and confirmation.

a. Exploration

In exploration activities, the teacher:

1) involving students seeking a broader and deeper information about a topic / theme of the material to be studied by applying natural principles takambang be a teacher and learn from various sources;

2) using a variety of learning approaches, instructional media, and other learning resources;

3) facilitate the interaction antarpeserta students and between students with teachers, environmental, and other learning resources;

4) actively involve the learners in any learning activities; and

5) facilitating learners to experiment in the laboratory, studio, or field.

b. Elaboration

In the normal elaboration, the teacher:

1) familiarize students read and write the diverse through the tasks

particular significance;

2) facilitate learners through the provision of tasks, discussions, etc. to

bring new ideas both verbally and in writing;

3) provide an opportunity to think, analyze, solve problems, and act without fear;

4) facilitating learners in a cooperative and collaborative learning;

5) facilitating learners to compete in a healthy way to improve learning achievement;

6) facilitate student exploration reports carried out both verbally and in writing, individually or in groups;

7) facilitate the learners to present the results of individual and group work;

8) facilitate learners to do exhibitions, tournaments, festivals, and products produced;

9) facilitates learners engage in activities that foster pride and confidence of students.

c. Confirmation

In confirmation of activities, teachers:

1) giving positive feedback and reinforcement in the form of oral, written, gesture, or a gift to the success of learners,

2) confirm the results of exploration and elaboration of learners through

various sources,

3) facilitating learners to reflect on learning experience that has been done,

4) facilitating learners to gain significant experience in achieving the basic competencies:

a) serves as a resource and facilitator in answering questions that learners

facing difficulties, using standardized language and correct;

b) help solve the problem;

c) give guidance so that learners can check the results of exploration;

d) provide information to explore further;

e) provide motivation to learners who lack or have not actively participated.

3. Concluding Activities

In the closing activity, the teacher:

a. Together with students and / or own a summary / conclusion lesson;

b. Conduct assessment and / or reflection of the activities that have been implemented in a consistent and programmed;

c. Provide feedback on process and learning outcomes;

d. Planning for follow up activities in the form of remedial teaching, program

enrichment, counseling services and / or provide both task and individual task

groups according to the results of learners' learning;

e. Delivering the lesson plan at the next meeting.



The assessment done by teachers to the learning outcomes to measure the achievement level of competence of learners, and also used as ingredients for preparing a progress report the results of learning, and improve the learning process.

Assessment done consistently, systematically, and programmed by using tests and nontes in writing or verbally, observation of performance, attitude measurement, assessment of the work of a task, project and / or product, portfolio and self assessment. Assessment of learning outcomes using the Assessment of Educational Standards and Assessment Guidance Group.


This paper has been through the editing process, without changing the actual content. Hope can help.



Standar Proses untuk Satuan Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah


           Sesuai dengan amanat Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 19 tahun 2005 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan salah satu standar yang harus dikembangkan adalah standar proses. Standar proses adalah standar nasional pendidikan yang berkaitan dengan pelaksanaan pembelajaran pada satuan pendidikan untuk mencapai kompetensi lulusan. Standar proses berisi kriteria minimal proses pembelajaran pada satuan pendidikan dasar dan menengah di seluruh wilayah hukum Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia. Standar proses ini berlaku untuk jenjang pendidikan dasar dan menengah pada jalur formal, baik pada sistem paket maupun pada sistem kredit semester. Standar proses meliputi perencanaan proses pembelajaran, pelaksanaan proses pembelajaran, penilaian hasil pembelajaran, dan pengawasan proses pembelajaran untuk terlaksananya proses pembelajaran yang efektif dan efisien.



            Perencanaan proses pembelajaran meliputi silabus dan rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP) yang memuat identitas mata pelajaran, standar kompetensi (SK), kompetensi dasar (KD), indikator pencapaian kompetensi, tujuan pembelajaran, materi ajar, alokasi waktu, metode pembelajaran, kegiatan pembelajaran, penilaian hasil belajar, dan sumber belajar.

a.       Silabus

Silabus sebagai acuan pengembangan RPP memuat identitas mata pelajaran atau tema pelajaran, SK, KD, materi pembelajaran, kegiatan pembelajaran, indikator pencapaian kompetensi, penilaian, alokasi waktu, dan sumber belajar. Silabus dikembangkan oleh satuan

pendidikan berdasarkan Standar Isi (SI) dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan (SKL), serta panduan penyusunan Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP). Dalam pelaksanaannya,

pengembangan silabus dapat dilakukan oleh para guru secara mandiri atau berkelompok dalam sebuah sekolah/madrasah atau beberapa sekolah, kelompok Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (MGMP) atau Pusat Kegiatan Guru (PKG), dan Dinas Pendidikan. Pengembangan silabus disusun di bawah supervisi dinas kabupaten/kota yang bertanggung jawab di bidang pendidikan untuk SD dan SMP, dan dinas provinsi yang bertanggung jawab di bidang pendidikan untuk SMA dan SMK, serta departemen yang menangani urusan pemerintahan di bidang agama untuk MI, MTs, MA, dan MAK.


A.    Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran (RPP)


     RPP dijabarkan dari silabus untuk mengarahkan kegiatan belajar peserta didik dalam upaya mencapai KD . Setiap guru pada satuan pendidikan berkewajiban menyusun RPP secara lengkap dan sistematis agar pembelajaran berlangsung secara interaktif, inspiratif, menyenangkan, menantang, memotivasi peserta didik untuk berpartisipasi aktif, serta memberikan ruang yang cukup bagi prakarsa, kreativitas, dan kemandirian sesuai dengan bakat, minat, dan perkembangan fisik serta psikologis peserta didik. RPP disusun untuk setiap KD yang dapat dilaksanakan dalam satu kali pertemuan atau lebih. Guru merancang penggalan RPP untuk setiap pertemuan yang disesuaikan dengan penjadwalan di satuan pendidikan.


Komponen RPP adalah :

1.Identitas mata pelajaran yang meliputi: satuan pendidikan, kelas, semester, program/program keahlian, mata pelajaran atau tema pelajaran, jumlah pertemuan.

2. Standar kompetensi yang merupakan kualifikasi kemampuan minimal peserta didik yang menggambarkan penguasaan pengetahuan, sikap, dan keterampilan yang diharapkan dicapai pada setiap kelas dan/atau semester pada suatu mata pelajaran.

3. Kompetensi dasar  yaitu sejumlah kemampuan yang harus dikuasai peserta didik dalam mata pelajaran tertentu sebagai rujukan penyusunan indikator kompetensi dalam suatu pelajaran.

4. Indikator pencapaian kompetensi  adalah perilaku yang dapat diukur dan/atau diobservasi untuk menunjukkan ketercapaian kompetensi dasar tertentu yang menjadi acuan penilaian mata pelajaran. Indikator pencapaian kompetensi dirumuskan dengan menggunakan kata kerja operasional yang dapat diamati dan diukur, yang mencakup pengetahuan, sikap, dan keterampilan.

5. Tujuan pembelajaran menggambarkan proses dan hasil belajar yang diharapkan dicapai oleh peserta didik sesuai dengan kompetensi dasar.

6. Materi ajar memuat fakta, konsep, prinsip, dan prosedur yang relevan, dan ditulis dalam bentuk butir-butir sesuai dengan rumusan indikator pencapaian kompetensi.

7. Alokasi waktu, ini ditentukan sesuai dengan keperluan untuk pencapaian KD dan beban belajar.

8. Metode pembelajaran ini digunakan oleh guru untuk mewujudkan suasana belajar dan proses pembelajaran agar peserta didik mencapai kompetensi dasar atau seperangkat indikator yang telah ditetapkan. Pemilihan metode pembelajaran disesuaikan dengan situasi dan kondisi peserta didik, serta karakteristik dari setiap indikator dan kompetensi yang hendak dicapai pada setiap mata pelajaran. Pendekatan pembelajaran tematik digunakan untuk peserta didik kelas 1sampai kelas 3 SD/MI.

9. Kegiatan pembelajaran

a. Pendahuluan

Pendahuluan merupakan kegiatan awal dalam suatu pertemuan pembelajaran yang ditujukan untuk membangkitkan motivasi dan memfokuskan perhatian peserta didik untuk berpartisipasi aktif dalam proses pembelajaran.

b. Inti

Kegiatan inti merupakan proses pembelajaran untuk mencapai KD. Kegiatan pembelajaran dilakukan secara interaktif, inspiratif, menyenangkan, menantang, memotivasi peserta didik untuk berpartisipasi aktif, serta memberikan ruang yang cukup bagi prakarsa, kreativitas, dan kemandirian sesuai dengan bakat, minat, dan perkembangan fisik serta psikologis peserta didik. Kegiatan ini dilakukan secara sistematis dan sistemik melalui proses eksplorasi, elaborasi, dan konfirmasi.

c. Penutup

 Penutup merupakan kegiatan yang dilakukan untuk mengakhiri aktivitas pembelajaran  yang dapat dilakukan dalam bentuk rangkuman atau kesimpulan, penilaian dan refleksi, umpan balik, dan tindak lanjut.


10. Penilaian hasil belajar. Prosedur dan instrumen penilaian proses dan hasil belajar disesuaikan dengan indikator pencapaian kompetensi dan mengacu kepada Standar Penilaian.

11. Sumber belajar yang ditentukan berdasarkan pada standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar, serta materi ajar, kegiatan pembelajaran, dan indikator pencapaian kompetensi.


B. Prinsip-prinsip Penyusunan RPP


1. Memperhatikan perbedaan individu peserta didik

Dalam penyusunan RPP kita perlu memperhatikan hal-hal seperti jenis kelamin, kemampuan awal, tingkat intelektual, minat, motivasi belajar, bakat, potensi, kemampuan sosial, emosi, gaya belajar, kebutuhan khusus, kecepatan belajar, latar belakang budaya, norma, nilai, dan/atau lingkungan peserta didik.

2. Mendorong partisipasi aktif peserta didik

Proses pembelajaran dirancang dengan berpusat pada peserta didik untuk mendorong

motivasi, minat, kreativitas, inisiatif, inspirasi, kemandirian, dan semangat belajar.

3. Mengembangkan budaya membaca dan menulis

Proses pembelajaran dirancang untuk mengembangkan kegemaran membaca pemahaman beragam bacaan, dan berekspresi dalam berbagai bentuk tulisan.

4. Memberikan umpan balik dan tindak lanjut

RPP memuat rancangan program pemberian umpan balik positif, penguatan, pengayaan, dan remedi.

5. Keterkaitan dan keterpaduan

RPP disusun dengan memperhatikan keterkaitan dan keterpaduan antara SK, KD, materi

pembelajaran, kegiatan pembelajaran, indikator pencapaian kompetensi, penilaian, dan sumber belajar dalam satu keutuhan pengalaman belajar. RPP disusun dengan mengakomodasikan pembelajaran tematik, keterpaduan lintas mata pelajaran, lintas aspek belajar, dan keragaman budaya.

6. Menerapkan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi

           RPP disusun dengan mempertimbangkan penerapan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi

secara terintegrasi, sistematis, dan efektif sesuai dengan situasi dan kondisi.





A. Persyaratan Pelaksanaan Proses Pembelajaran

1. Rombongan belajar

Jumlah maksimal peserta didik setiap rombongan belajar adalah:

a. SD/MI : 28 peserta didik

b. SMP/MT : 32 peserta didik

c. SMA/MA : 32 peserta didik

d. SMK/MAK : 32 peserta didik

2. Beban kerja minimal guru

a. Beban kerja guru mencakup kegiatan pokok yaitu merencanakan pembelajaran,   melaksanakan pembelajaran, menilai hasil pembelajaran, membimbing dan melatih  peserta didik, serta melaksanakan tugas tambahan;

b. Beban kerja guru sebagaimana dimaksud pada huruf a di atas adalah sekurang  kurangnya 24 (dua puluh empat) jam tatap muka dalam 1 (satu) minggu.

 3. Buku teks pelajaran

a. Buku teks pelajaran yang akan digunakan oleh sekolah/madrasah dipilih melalui    rapat guru dengan pertimbangan komite sekolah/madrasah dari buku-buku teks pelajaran yang ditetapkan oleh Menteri;

b. Rasio buku teks pelajaran untuk peserta didik adalah 1 : 1 per mata pelajaran;

c. Selain buku teks pelajaran, guru menggunakan buku panduan guru, buku   pengayaan, buku referensi dan sumber belajar lainnya;

d. Guru membiasakan peserta didik menggunakan buku-buku dan sumber belajar lain  yang ada di perpustakaan sekolah/madrasah.

4. Pengelolaan kelas

a. Guru mengatur tempat duduk sesuai dengan karakteristik peserta didik dan mata      pelajaran, serta aktivitas pembelajaran yang akan dilakukan;

b. Volume dan intonasi suara guru dalam proses pembelajaran harus dapat didengar    dengan baik oleh peserta didik;

c. Tutur kata guru santun dan dapat dimengerti oleh peserta didik;

d. Guru menyesuaikan materi pelajaran dengan kecepatan dan kemampuan belajar  peserta didik;

e. Guru menciptakan ketertiban, kedisiplinan, kenyamanan, keselamatan, dan  kepatuhan pada peraturan dalam menyelenggarakan proses pembelajaran;

f. Guru memberikan penguatan dan umpan balik terhadap respons dan hasil belajar  peserta didik selama proses pembelajaran berlangsung;

g. Guru menghargai peserta didik tanpa memandang latar belakang agama, suku, jenis kelamin, dan status sosial ekonomi;

h. Guru menghargai pendapat peserta didik;

i. Guru memakai pakaian yang sopan, bersih, dan rapi;

j. Pada tiap awal semester, guru menyampaikan silabus mata pelajaran yang  diampunya; dan

k. Guru memulai dan mengakhiri proses pembelajaran sesuai dengan waktu yang  dijadwalkan.


B. Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran

     Pelaksanaan pembelajaran merupakan implementasi dari RPP. Pelaksanaan pembelajaran

meliputi kegiatan pendahuluan, kegiatan inti dan kegiatan penutup.

1. Kegiatan Pendahuluan

Dalam kegiatan pendahuluan, guru:

a. menyiapkan peserta didik secara psikis dan fisik untuk mengikuti proses pembelajaran;

b. mengajukan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang mengaitkan pengetahuan sebelumnya dengan

materi yang akan dipelajari;

c. menjelaskan tujuan pembelajaran atau kompetensi dasar yang akan dicapai;

d. menyampaikan cakupan materi dan penjelasan uraian kegiatan sesuai silabus.

2. Kegiatan Inti

Pelaksanaan kegiatan inti merupakan proses pembelajaran untuk mencapai KD yang dilakukan secara interaktif, inspiratif, menyenangkan, menantang, memotivasi peserta didik untuk berpartisipasi aktif, serta memberikan ruang yang cukup bagi prakarsa, kreativitas, dan kemandirian sesuai dengan bakat, minat dan perkembangan fisik serta psikologis peserta didik. Kegiatan inti menggunakan metode yang disesuaikan dengan karakteristik peserta didik dan mata pelajaran, yang dapat meliputi proses eksplorasi, elaborasi, dan konfirmasi.

a. Eksplorasi

Dalam kegiatan eksplorasi, guru:

1) melibatkan peserta didik mencari informasi yang luas dan dalam tentang topik/tema materi yang akan dipelajari dengan menerapkan prinsip alam takambang jadi guru dan belajar dari aneka sumber;

2) menggunakan beragam pendekatan pembelajaran, media pembelajaran, dan sumber belajar lain;

3) memfasilitasi terjadinya interaksi antarpeserta didik serta antara peserta didik dengan guru, lingkungan, dan sumber belajar lainnya;

4) melibatkan peserta didik secara aktif dalam setiap kegiatan pembelajaran; dan

5) memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan percobaan di laboratorium, studio, atau lapangan.

b. Elaborasi

Dalam kegiatan elaborasi, guru:

1) membiasakan peserta didik membaca dan menulis yang beragam melalui tugas-tugas

tertentu yang bermakna;

2) memfasilitasi peserta didik melalui pemberian tugas, diskusi, dan lain-lain untuk

memunculkan gagasan baru baik secara lisan maupun tertulis;

3) memberi kesempatan untuk berpikir, menganalisis, menyelesaikan masalah, dan bertindak tanpa rasa takut;

4) memfasilitasi peserta didik dalam pembelajaran kooperatif dan kolaboratif;

5) memfasilitasi peserta didik berkompetisi secara sehat untuk meningkatkan prestasi belajar;

6) memfasilitasi peserta didik membuat laporan eksplorasi yang dilakukan baik lisan maupun tertulis, secara individual maupun kelompok;

7) memfasilitasi peserta didik untuk menyajikan hasil kerja individual maupun kelompok;

8) memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan pameran, turnamen, festival, serta produk yang dihasilkan;

9) memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan kegiatan yang menumbuhkan kebanggaan dan rasa percaya diri peserta didik.

c. Konfirmasi

Dalam kegiatan konfirmasi, guru:

1) memberikan umpan balik positif dan penguatan dalam bentuk lisan, tulisan, isyarat, maupun hadiah terhadap keberhasilan peserta didik,

2) memberikan konfirmasi terhadap hasil eksplorasi dan elaborasi peserta didik melalui

berbagai sumber,

3) memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan refleksi untuk memperoleh pengalaman belajar yang telah dilakukan,

4) memfasilitasi peserta didik untuk memperoleh pengalaman yang bermakna dalam mencapai kompetensi dasar:

a) berfungsi sebagai narasumber dan fasilitator dalam menjawab pertanyaan peserta didik yang

menghadapi kesulitan, dengan menggunakan bahasa yang baku dan benar;

b) membantu menyelesaikan masalah;

c) memberi acuan agar peserta didik dapat melakukan pengecekan hasil eksplorasi;

d) memberi informasi untuk bereksplorasi lebih jauh;

e) memberikan motivasi kepada peserta didik yang kurang atau belum berpartisipasi aktif.

3. Kegiatan Penutup

Dalam kegiatan penutup, guru:

a. Bersama-sama dengan peserta didik dan/atau sendiri membuat rangkuman/simpulan pelajaran;

b. Melakukan penilaian dan/atau refleksi terhadap kegiatan yang sudah dilaksanakan secara konsisten dan terprogram;

c. Memberikan umpan balik terhadap proses dan hasil pembelajaran;

d. Merencanakan kegiatan tindak lanjut dalam bentuk pembelajaran remedi, program

pengayaan, layanan konseling dan/atau memberikan tugas baik tugas individual maupun

kelompok sesuai dengan hasil belajar peserta didik;

e. Menyampaikan rencana pembelajaran pada pertemuan berikutnya.



            Penilaian dilakukan oleh guru terhadap hasil pembelajaran untuk mengukur tingkat pencapaian kompetensi peserta didik, serta digunakan sebagai bahan penyusunan laporan kemajuan hasil belajar, dan memperbaiki proses pembelajaran.

            Penilaian dilakukan secara konsisten, sistematik, dan terprogram dengan menggunakan tes dan nontes dalam bentuk tertulis atau lisan, pengamatan kinerja, pengukuran sikap, penilaian hasil karya berupa tugas, proyek dan/atau produk, portofolio, dan penilaian diri. Penilaian hasil pembelajaran menggunakan Standar Penilaian Pendidikan dan Panduan Penilaian Kelompok.


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